Why is it important in the study of religion?

Rate this post

THESE ARE THE RELIGIONS WE TALKED ABOUT THIS SEMESTER
 
WORLD RELIGIONS – REL 212 World Religions
 
 
HINDUISM   & JAINISM
WEEK   2
 
Cosmogony – Origin of the Universe
No specific origin or founder
 
Nature of God/Creator
Gods are in male and female form and   represent many different things
 
View of Human Nature
Karma, what comes around goes around
 
View of Good & Evil
good actions have good effects, bad actions   have bad effects
 
View of Salvation
Moksha is when an enlightened human being is   freed from the cycle of life-and-death (the endless cycle of death and   reincarnation) and comes into a state of completeness. He then becomes one   with God.
 
View of After Life
Samsara-reincarnation
 
Practices and Rituals
Sculptures;images;Home   shrines;Meditation;Ayurveda;Hatha Yoga;Kundalini Yoga;Puja (Pooja)
 
Celebrations & Festivals
Raksha Bandhan;Krishna Janmashthami;Ganesh   Chaturthi;Shiv Ratri;The Onam Carnival;Vasant Panchami;Guru Purnima;Karwa   Chauth;Bhai Dooj;Vasanta Navaratri;The Kumbh & Ardhkumbh
 
Week 2   – Sources
http://www.hinduwisdom.info/Hindu_Cosmology.htm
 
 
 
BUDDHISM
WEEK   3
 
Cosmogony – Origin of the Universe
Beginning of this world   and of life is inconceivable, since they have neither beginning nor end
 
Nature of God/Creator
do not believe in the concept of a personal   God
 
View of Human Nature
Dependent origination, or dependent arising,   is a formulation that is central to Buddhist philosophy
 
View of Good & Evil
Conditions which arise in the mind, producing   results initially in the mind, and from there to external actions and   physical features. Good and evil are innate, inseparable aspects   of life.
 
View of Salvation
Salvation is liberation from such bondage   through the transformation of our consciousness and our awakening to our true   nature. The Buddhist path to salvation does not go through prayers, but is   rather based on deeds including mental culture through meditation. For a   Buddhist salvation is reaching Nirvana.
 
View of After Life
The Buddhist view is that there is no soul,   as it is understood in the Judeo-Christian or scholastic philosophy   traditions. after death one is either reborn into another body (reincarnated)   or enters nirvana
 
Practices and Rituals
Meditation;Mantras;Mudras;Prayer wheels
 
Celebrations & Festivals
• Buddhist   New Year
• Buddha’s   Birthday is known as Vesak or Visakah Puja
• Songkran-(essentially   a cleansing of life by cleaning homes and washing clothes etc.)
• The   Ploughing Festival(May, when the moon is half-full, two white oxen pull a   gold painted plough, followed by four girls dressed in white who scatter rice   seeds from gold and silver baskets. This is to celebrate the Buddha’s first   moment of enlightenment)
• Loy   Krathong: When the rivers and canals are full of water, this festival takes   place in all parts of Thailand on the full moon night of the twelfth lunar   month. Bowls made with leaves, candles, and incense sticks, are placed in the   water, and represent bad luck disappearing.
 
Week 3 – Sources
http://www.urbandharma.org/udharma5/goodevil.html
http://www.patheos.com/Library/Buddhism/Beliefs/Human-Nature-and-the-Purpose-of-Existence
http://shindharmanet.com/salvation2/
 
 
DAOISM   & CONFUCIANISM
WEEK   4
 
Cosmogony – Origin of the Universe
It makes some reference to the origin of   the world through the interaction of the forces of Ying and Yang. There are   no stories about the origin of human beings.
 
Nature of God/Creator
They believe that God is loving and benign
 
View of Human Nature
The purpose of existence is to reach one’s highest   potential as a human being. Through a rigorous process of self-cultivation   that lasts a lifetime, one may eventually become a “perfected   person.”
 
View of Good & Evil
Suffering and evil are inevitable in human   life, and can promote learning and growth. A mistake is not a   “sin,” but an opportunity to learn and do better next time.
 
View of Salvation
Confucians don’t ordinarily hold convictions   about the individual salvation or condemnation of persons past this life. Death   is neither dreaded nor desired in Daoism rather a person appreciates living.
 
View of After Life
Confucianism regards both life and death as a   responsibility to society, while Daoism (Taoism) holds that both life and   death should be in conformity to nature.
 
Practices and Rituals
Aside from its important ethical principles,   Confucianism does not prescribe any specific rituals or practices. These are   filled by the practices of Chinese religion, Taoism, Buddhism, or other   religion which Confucians follow.
 
Celebrations & Festivals
· The 28th day of September is the birthday of   Confucius.
· The Chinese Ching Ming Festival, also called,   Ancestor Day
· The Qufu International Confucius Festival is   celebrated annually between September 26th and October 10
 
Week 4 – Sources
http://religions.findthebest.com/q/4/1464/What-is-the-nature-of-god-according-to-Confucianism
http://www.patheos.com/Library/Confucianism/Beliefs/Human-Nature-and-the-Purpose-of-Existence.html#ixzz38hI0maX2
http://www.crvp.org/book/series03/iii-3/appendix_b_theories_of_life_and_.htm
 
 
WEEK   5
SHINTO
 
Cosmogony – Origin of the Universe
In the Kojiki it states:   ” At the time of the beginning of heaven and earth” and does not   refer to whatever may have preceded the separation of Heaven and Earth, but   simply suggests that something already existed
 
Nature of God/Creator
Kami are the spirits or phenomena that are   worshipped in the religion of Shinto. They are elements in nature, animals,   creationary forces in the universe, as well as spirits of the revered   deceased. Many Kami are considered the ancient ancestors of entire clans, and   some ancestors became Kami upon their death if they were able to embody the   values and virtues of Kami in life.
 
View of Human Nature
In Shintō it is commonly said that “man is   kami’s child.”
 
View of Good & Evil
Purity is at the heart of Shinto’s   understanding of good and evil.
 
View of Salvation
The concept of salvation is based on the   belief that all living things have an essence, soul or spirit known as   “kami.”
 
View of After Life
After death, a person becomes a spirit-deity,   eventually joining in a great ancestral collective which is the manifestation   of the great Divine. Shinto followers place little emphasis on death and what   happens after it
 
Practices and Rituals
Shinto rituals are a central component of   most of the national festivals in Japan, as well as of the more specialized   events at particular shrines and other sacred sites. Most often they are   performed by male priests who are assisted by a female shrine functionary   called a miko, who often is a shaman.
 
Celebrations & Festivals
The main Shintō rites and festivals are for   celebrating the New Year, child birth, coming of age, planting and havest,   weddings, and groundbreaking ceremonies for new buildings
 
Week 5 – Sources
http://eos.kokugakuin.ac.jp/modules/xwords/entry.php?entryID=1319
http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/shinto-festivals.html
 
http://lifeafterdeath.com/life-after-death-shinto/
 
WEEK   6
JUDAISM
 
Cosmogony – Origin of the Universe
A Divine singular God   made all that exists
 
Nature of God/Creator
He is a single, whole, complete indivisible   entity. Judaism completely rejects the dualistic notion that evil was created   by Satan or some other deity.
 
View of Human Nature
Humans were created in the image of God. People   have the ability to choose which impulse to follow: the good impulse or the   evil impulse. That is the heart of the Jewish understanding of free will.
 
View of Good & Evil
In Judaism good and evil are spoken of as   light and darkness.
 
View of Salvation
Salvation comes from the Lord and is a favor   bestowed upon the nation as a whole.
 
View of After Life
Jewish teachings on the subject of afterlife   are sparse: The Torah, the most important Jewish text, has no clear reference   to afterlife at all.
 
Practices and Rituals
· Circumcision
· Havdalah (includes Havdalah service)
· Kashrut (dietary traditions: keeping kosher)
 
Celebrations & Festivals
· Shabbat – considered the most important of   all Jewish holidays
· Rosh Hashanah – Jewish New Year
· Yom Kippur – Jewish Day of Atonement
· Sukkot – seven–day festival celebrates the   fall harvest
· Shemini Atzeret – a festive day after the   week-long festival of Sukkot
· Hanukkah – 8–day Jewish winter festival
 
Week 6 – Sources
http://www.jewfaq.org/g-d.htm
http://scheinerman.net/judaism/Rituals/index.html
http://www.pjcc.org/jewishlife/holidays/jewish-holidays-explained.html
 
 
WEEK   7
CHRISTIANITY
 
Cosmogony – Origin of the Universe
Christianity inherited the Jewish cosmology   that God is the creative force, or power, and created everything himself. God created all things through a series of   acts, or methodology, described in the Bible.
 
Nature of God/Creator
God is unique, distinct, and unlike any other   concept of God. There is only one God, and God the Father, Jesus and the Holy   Spirit are all the same God.
 
View of Human Nature
Each person is a unique individual and has   the power to act under his/her own will. By design, human beings are in relation. They are in relation to their   environment, to God, to their neighbors, and to the larger human community.
 
View of Good & Evil
All goodness flows from God’s inherent   character, and evil is refusing to submit to His authority and love and serve   Him. Christians hold that moral evil stems   from rebellion against God, which results in injustice, vanity, pride,   dishonesty, aggression, violence, greed and more.
 
View of Salvation
Salvation is made possible by the sacrificial   death of Jesus Christ by crucifixion. As the judge of all, God will assess   each individual’s relationship to Christ; people risk a sentence of eternal   punishment and spiritual death, forever separated from God.
 
View of After Life
Majority of Christians believe in some kind   of heaven, in which the deceased enjoy the presence of God and loved ones for   eternity. A small majority of Christians believe in hell, a place of   suffering where unbelievers or sinners are punished. Catholic Christians also   believe in purgatory, a temporary place of punishment for Christians who have   died with unconfessed sins.
 
Practices and Rituals
Nearly all Christians will have been   baptized, either as an infant or as an adult, and regularly participate in   communion. The cross is important to   Christianity as well as Jesus Christ’s depiction of being hung upon that   cross.
 
Celebrations & Festivals
Lent, Easter and Christmas are the main   religious festivals of the Christian Year. The most important Christian   holiday is Easter, a spring festival that celebrates Christ’s resurrection   from the dead. The 40 days prior to Easter form the Lenten season, a time of   fasting and repentance. Christmas commemorates the birth of Jesus on   December 25.
 
Week 7 – Sources
http://www.themystica.com/mystica/articles/c/cosmology_christian.html

http://worldreligions2.tripod.com/id7.html
 
http://www.christinyou.net/pages/understandgod.html
http://people.opposingviews.com/christianity-beliefs-good-evil-2926.html
 
 
WEEK 8
ISLAM
 
Cosmogony – Origin of the Universe
Allah, the supreme being created everything   and everyone
 
Nature of God/Creator
Although the God of Islam has revealed his   will through the prophets, his actual nature remains ultimately unknowable. He   is transcendent and not a part of his creation, and is most often referred to   in terms and with names that emphasize his majesty and superiority.
 
View of Human Nature
Muslims believe humans are the greatest of   all creatures, created with free will for the purpose of obeying and serving   Allah.
 
View of Good & Evil
The Islamic definitions of good and evil are   based on the purposes of creation and the meaning of human life. The   ultimate goal of human life is to become perfected spiritually through belief   in God, the knowledge of God, the love of God, and the worship of God. Whatever   brings a person closer to God and will benefit him in the Next World is good,   and whatever takes a person away from God, and incur His anger is evil.
 
View of Salvation
In Islam, the purpose of life is to live in a   way that is pleasing to Allah so that one may gain Paradise. Unbelievers   (“those who are ungrateful”) and sinners will be condemned, but   genuine repentance results in Allah’s forgiveness and entrance into Paradise   upon death. Islam teaches that no one can gain salvation simply by virtue of   their belief or deeds, instead it is the Mercy of God, which merits them   salvation.
 
View of After Life
Islamic doctrine holds that human existence   continues after the death of the human body in the form of spiritual and   physical resurrection. Faith in life after death is one of the six   fundamental beliefs required of a Muslim to complete his faith. Rejecting it renders all other beliefs   meaningless.
 
Practices and Rituals
The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic arkan   ud-Din, “pillars of the faith”) are the five religious duties   expected of every Muslim.
· Shahada – The first of the Five   Pillars Shahada is the Muslim profession of faith, expressing the two simple,   fundamental beliefs that make one a Muslim: There is no god but   God and Muhammad is the prophet of God.
· Salat – ritual prayer which is performed five   times a day: at dawn, midday, afternoon, sunset and evening.
· Alms tax (zakat)
· Sawm – fasting, commemorates the revelation   of the Quran to humanity during Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic year.
· Hajj – At least once in his or her lifetime,   each Muslim is expected to undertake a pilgrimage to Mecca, the sacred city   of Islam.
Before performing certain rituals, most   importantly before prayers, Muslims are expected to perform a form of   purification
 
Celebrations & Festivals
Eid al-Fitr (1 Shawwal): The Celebration   concluding Ramadan. Ramadan, the month of fasting, ends with the festival of   Eid al-Fitr. Literally the “Festival of Breaking the Fast,” Eid   al-Fitr is one of the two most important Islamic celebrations (Eid al-Adha is   the other). Al-Hijra, the Islamic New Year, is celebrated   on the first day of Muharram, the month in which Muhammad emigrated from   Mecca to Medina. Ashura is an Islamic holiday observed on the 10th of   Muharram, the first month of the Islamic year.
 
Week 8 – Sources
http://www.religionfacts.com/islam/beliefs/human.htm
http://www.islamreligion.com/
 
http://www.questionsaboutislam.com/
http://www.religionfacts.com/islam/holidays
 
 
WEEK   9
SIKHISM
 
Cosmogony – Origin of the Universe
Sikhism teaches that only the creator knows   the origin of the universe.
 
Nature of God/Creator
Sikhism teaches the existence of one God, Ik   Onkar. First Guru Nanak taught that the creator and creation are inseparable   in the way that an ocean is made up of its individual drops.
 
View of Human Nature
Sikhs perceive human life as an opportunity   to merge with the divine will. However, the core problem is that human   judgment is occluded by a false sense of self.
 
View of Good & Evil
Only humans know the difference between right   and wrong, and can make moral choices
 
View of Salvation
In order to attain salvation one must live a   honest life and meditate on God. Sikhism shows the way to attain salvation   and become One with God. Sikhism instructs that you do not have to fast,   abstain, go on renunciation or enter a monastery in order to meet God. All   you have to do is have faith, recite the Name of God and remember Him for   each possible moment.
 
View of After Life
Sikhs do not believe in an afterlife in   either Heaven or Hell. Sikhism teaches that the soul reincarnates when the   body dies. Sikhs believe that good or bad actions, in this life, determine   the life form into which a soul takes rebirth.
 
Practices and Rituals
Baptism – Amrit; Marriage   – Anand Karaj; Naming of Children
 
Celebrations & Festivals
Guru Gobind Singh’s Birthday; Maghi; Hola   Maholla; Vaisakhi; Martyrdom of Guru Arjan; Celebration   of the Guru Granth Sahib; Guru Nanak’s Birthday; Martyrdom   of Guru Tegh Bahadur
 
Week 9 – Sources
http://sikhism.about.com/od/sikhism101/qt/Creation.htm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/rs/god/sigoodandevilrev2.shtml
http://sikhism.about.com/od/sikhism101/qt/Sikh_Afterlife.htm
 
http://www.patheos.com/Library/Sikhism/Beliefs/Human-Nature-and-the-Purpose-of-Existence.html
http://www.realsikhism.com/index.php?subaction=showfull&id=1248309169&ucat=7
http://www.sikhismguide.org/rites.aspx
 
WEEK   10
NEW   RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS
 
Cosmogony – Origin of the Universe
There is a higher being of some form.
 
Nature of God/Creator
Most believe that God is a higher being that   is benevolent and all seeing
 
View of Human Nature
human nature is that of a multitude of   choices in life and choices are made based on one’s beliefs
 
View of Good & Evil
good and evil exist everywhere, and choices   are where we make the choice between good and evil based on our life’s   choices
 
View of Salvation
Salvation can be achieved by attempting to   live a modest, humble life and doing as much good as possible.
 
View of After Life
Afterlife is extremely varied. Some do not   believe and others believe in a place similar to the heaven described in   Christianity and some also believe in a hell.
 
Practices and Rituals
Practices and rituals are very different from   religion to religion. Some believe in meditation, smoking marijuana, wearing   certain colors, etc.
 
Celebrations & Festivals
The celebrations are small and commonly   unheard of.
 
THIS IS THE ACTUAL ASSIGNMENT:
 
Choose ONE (1) category (origin of all things, nature of god, view of human nature, view of good and evil, etc.) from the chart to focus on for this assignment. Consider how the selected category relates to all of the religions covered and to your own social or work experiences.
Write a two to three (2-3) page paper in which you:

Select ONE (1) category from the completed World View Chart. Provide a rationale for choosing this category. What is compelling about this category? Why is it important in the study of religion?
Describe the selected content and explain the significance of the selected category across all of the religions studied. Show in what ways the category is significant for each religion.
Give an example of how you have noticed this category in your life, town or country. What impact does this category have in the everyday lives of people who practice religion in your area? (You do not have to give examples of all the religions in your area, just one you have noticed besides any you practice). For example, in Cincinnati, Ohio we have Hindu, Greek Orthodox, Catholic festivals in the summer. So if my category were “Festivals and Celebrations” I could use those events as my example.
Use at least three (3) quality resources as references for the assignment and document your sources using APA Style for in-text citations and references. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.
Write clearly and coherently using correct grammar, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics.

< a href="/order">