Rachels and Callahan are in direct disagreement over the

Long (5-6 page) Written AssignmentDue: March 22, at Noon (12pm)For this assignment, you can choose one of two options. Both options are available toeveryone.OPTION 1: Research Ethics Cover LetterAfter teaching this course several times, I have found that some students are veryuncomfortable with the philosophy essay format. Moreover, for many biology, science, ornursing students in this course, you may never have taken a philosophy course before, andmay never take another philosophy course after biomedical ethics. So, this option is designedto allow you to write in a format that may be more familiar to you, and may be helpful inyour future professional life. For this option, you are applying to a research ethics board forresearch ethics approval under the Tri-Council Policy Statement on Research InvolvingHuman Beings. The familiar written format is a formal letter, demonstrating understandingof both the Tri-Council Policy Statement, and of the central biomedical concepts of thiscourse: informed consent, respect for autonomy, fairness and equity, and privacy andconfidentiality. Your letter will apply for research ethics board approval based on a real orimagined experiment involving human beings.Format: 5-6 pages excluding header, double spaced, 12 point font. Begin with a standardletter heading and greeting. (Perhaps addressed to “Research Ethics Board” at an imaginedhospital address, and “To Whom it May Concern”). The experiment should be describedbriefly in no more than one paragraph. The bulk of your 5 pages should be taken up withdemonstrating (i) that you understand informed consent, respect for autonomy, fairnessand equity, and privacy and confidentiality and (ii) that the experiment meets theserequirements. In aid of (i), please use definitions for these concepts (paraphrased or quoted,and correctly cited) wherever appropriate. Once a concept is defined, you will demonstratethe depth of your understanding by showing how the experimental design considers themappropriately. For example, informed consent is difficult if not impossible to achieve inexperiments involving patients in an emergency situation. Those in extreme amounts ofpain, or unable to breath, are not in a position to understand that an experiment is optional,nor to make clear and unforced decisions. You are therefore advised to choose a clinicalsetting for your experiment that will be compatible with informed consent, respect forautonomy, fairness and equity, and privacy and confidentiality. If you choose an experimentinvolving children, or patients with diminished capacities, you may also find the need to adda discussion of competence.Organization: For the Research Ethics Cover Letter, you are responsible for organizingthe material in a clear and logical manner. There will be significant marks allocated for clarityincluding organization, grammar, and correct citation. You may find it helpful to use subheadingsin your letter, such as: (1) Experimental Design; (2) Informed Consent; (3) Respectfor Autonomy; (4) Fairness and Equity; and (5) Privacy and Confidentiality.OPTION 2: Thesis Defense EssayThis option is available to anyone who is interested in writing a philosophy essay, or whowants to write about one of the major controversies examined in this course. For thisoption, you will write a philosophical thesis defense essay responding to one of thefollowing questions:1. Rachels and Callahan are in direct disagreement over the existence of a moraldifference between killing and letting die. Examine one argument that you take to bethe strongest argument put forward by Rachels, and one argument that you take tobe the strongest argument put forward by Callahan. Based on these two arguments,what can you conclude about the moral permissibility of voluntary active euthanasia?2. Marquis asserts that many theorists “believe that whether or not abortion is morallypermissible stands or falls on whether or not a fetus is the sort of being whose life itis seriously wrong to end” (137). Marquis and Warren adopt this sort of strategy. Incontrast, Thomson and Sherwin argue that even once we have settled the questionof the moral status of the fetus, there is still a significant moral question regardingthe permissibility of abortion. Examine at least one argument relying on eachstrategy. (That is, one of Marquis and Warren; one of Thomson and Sherwin.)Which strategy do you find the most persuasive and why? (Note: this question doesNOT ask whether or not abortion is, all things considered, morally permissible.)Format: 5-6 pages excluding header/cover page, double spaced, 12 point font. See WritingPhilosophy: A Guide for Canadian Students Chapter 4 for an explanation and overview of a thesisdefense paper.Your paper must include:• A clear statement of your thesis.• An accurate summary of some of the relevant arguments or theories contained inour assigned readings.• An argument that includes your own evaluation of the subject matter of your paper. • Appropriate footnotes or in-text citations.Your paper should not include: • Appeals to God, religious text, or religious belief.• Excessive or inappropriate appeals to personal stories. While these can occasionallybe helpful, they are a weak form of argument from example, and often undermineyour argument rather than making it stronger.Organization: Your thesis defense essay should be written in full paragraphs, not pointform. Headings/subheadings are not necessary, and do not count towards the overall lengthof your paper. You are responsible for organizing the material in a clear and logical manner.There will be significant marks allocated for clarity including organization, grammar, andcorrect citation.SUBMITTING YOUR ASSIGNMENT (for both Options):• Please name your file as follows: Lastname.Firstname.A2• If you are able to, please submit a hard copy of your essay • Please use a header or title page that includes: your name, your instructor’s name, andthe course number.

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