Answer all 5 questions using a reference and citing in each answer.
1. According to Cohen, et al. (2013), “The Flynn effect is thus a shorthand reference to the progressive rise in intelligence test scores that is expected to occur on a normed test intelligence from the date when the test was first normed. According to Flynn (2000), the exact amount of the rise in IQ will vary as a function of several factors, such as how culture-specific the items are and whether the measure used is one of fluid or crystallized intelligence” (p. 309). In addition, Cohen, et al. also indicated that “Flynn (2000) sarcastically advised examiners who want the children they test to be eligible for special services to use the most recently normed version of an intelligence test. On the other hand, examiners who want the children they test to escape the stigma of any labeling were advised to use “the oldest test they can get away with,” which should, according to Flynn, allow for at least 10 points’ leeway in measured intelligence” (p. 309).
What additional thoughts do you have on the Flynn effect, and “What is your opinion regarding the ethics of Flynn’s advice to psychologists and educators who examine children for placement in special classes?”(p. 309). Please indicate upon whom and/or what your thoughts and/or opinions are based?
2. Cohen, et al. (2013) wrote, “Although most behavioral scientists today believe that measured intellectual ability represents an interaction between (1) innate ability [i.e., “nature”] and (2) environmental influences [i.e., “nurture”], such a belief was not always popular” (p. 301). Moreover, the authors asked, “Is intelligence genetically encoded [i.e., based on “nature”], unfolding with maturation? Or does the learning environment [i.e., “nurture”] account for our intelligence?” (p. 302). Perhaps, most ideally both “nurture” and “nature” may play respective roles in one’s intelligence; however, what are your thoughts on which one, “nurture” or “nature,” may play a more dominant (or more significant) role, and based upon whom and/or what are your thoughts formed?
3. In discussing Guilford’s (1967) structure-of-intellect model, Cohen, et al. (2013) wrote, “A criticism frequently leveled at group standardized intelligence tests (as well as at other ability and achievement tests) is that evaluation of test performance is too heavily focused on whether the answer is correct. The heavy emphasis on correct response leaves little room for the evaluation of processes such as originality, fluency, flexibility, and elaboration. Stated another way, on most achievement tests the thought process typically required is convergent thinking. Convergent thinking is a deductive reasoning process that entails recall and consideration of facts as well as a series of logical judgments to narrow down solutions and eventually arrive at one solution. … [Whereas,] Divergent thinking is a reasoning process in which thought is free to move in many different directions, making several solutions possible. Divergent thinking requires flexibility of thought, originality, and imagination. There is much less emphasis on recall of facts than in convergent thinking” (p. 355).
What are your thoughts on Guilford’s (1967) structure-of-intellect model and tests to assess creativity; should the psychometric standards for such tests be different from the psychometric standards used with other ability tests; and based upon whom and/or what are your thoughts formed?
4. According to Public Law 108-147 (2007), a specific learning disability is “a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations.” Moreover, around about the same time, “the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (2006) no longer mandated that state-adopted criteria for defining SLD be made on the basis of a severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement.” Therefore, rather than simply using such a definition for SLD, IDEA began to requires states and state departments of education to use a Response to Intervention model.
According to National Center on Response to Intervention (2010), “Response to intervention integrates assessment and intervention within a multi-level prevention system to maximize student achievement and to reduce behavioral problems. With RTI, schools use data to identify students at risk for poor learning outcomes, monitor student progress, provide evidence-based interventions and adjust the intensity and nature of those interventions depending on a student’s responsiveness, and identify students with learning disabilities or other disabilities.” Moreover, according to Cohen, et al. (2013), “By providing intervention (teaching or remedial instruction, as the case may be) appropriate to the level of the student’s needs, the objective of RtI is to accelerate the learning process for all students. In addition, RtI doubles as a process in place that will identify students with learning disabilities” (p. 359).
What are your thoughts on implementing Response to Intervention (RtI) prior to formally progressing forward in identifying a disability, e.g. SLD, for students “struggling” academically in the classroom, and based upon whom and/or what are your thoughts based?
5. According to Sternberg (2004), “One can pretend to measure intelligence across cultures simply by translating Western tests and giving them to individuals in a variety of cultures. But such measurement is only pretense. Care must be taken even when attempting to measure the intelligence of various cultural groups within a society” (p. 336).
This video, Films Media Group (1997), offers this class the invaluable opportunity to hear directly from Dr. Robert Sternberg with regard to his Triarchic Theory of Intelligence. A central premise of the discussion seems to direct around the following questions:
- How do multiple intelligences and different thinking styles relate to traditional IQ scores?
- What role should teacher creativity and the family play in shaping student intelligence?
6. Many people, including those in the scholarly community, may argue that the constructs of “achievement” and “intelligence” are so near similar until they may be used interchangeably. Whereas, other scholars may argue that the two constructs are very distinct, albeit the construct of “achievement” may depend upon the construct of “intelligence” than vice versa. Perhaps pertaining somewhat to such arguments, Naglieri and Bornstein (2003) conducted a study in which they explored relationships that may exist between scores on intelligence tests and scores on achievement tests. Resultantly, Naglieri and Bornstein (2003) indicated that their “findings should serve to assure professionals that an approach to intelligence that measures basic psychological processes like the CAS [ cognitive assessment system] or K-ABC [Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children] has considerable validity for prediction of achievement” (p. 252).
What additional thoughts might you have on the correlations that may exist between the two constructs, i.e., achievement and intelligence?