Evidence…is what answers the question, “How do you know?” or “What do you have to go on?” when a person makes a claim and the claim is then called into question. ..the evidence needs to be agreed to by all of the participants, so that it’s a secure starting point of the dispute…If it’s contested, discussion of the claim stops until the adequacy of the evidence is established…Settling the matter when evidence is in dispute requires a separate argument in which the original evidence now functions as the claim to be established…
To set our standard for acceptability of evidence we must ask, what would a critical audience—an audience that’s reasoning and thinking critically—be likely to accept?1
Three main types of evidence
Individual instances that are intended to demonstrate a larger point. They can be developed into a narrative or could be one sentence.
- Statistics In short, this refers to numeric data. There are three main types of statistics: Raw numbers: numbers that have not been analyzed at all. For instance, “over 4,400 U.S. soldiers died in Iraq between 2003 and 2012.” Statistics refined by some analysis: things like percentages and ratios. For instance, “55 percent of baby boomer are planning to retire before they reach the normal retirement age.” Rate of change: rates and probability. For instance, “the city of Las Vegas is gaining 20,000 new people per day” (rate of change) or “these results are significant at the .05 level, meaning that if we did this experiment over and over again, 95 percent of the time we would not get this result be chance.”
- Appeals to authority
We did an exercise on this. It essentially refers to using, as evidence, the opinion of a someone qualified to speak on the subject. Example: “Joe Smith, a highly-respected dentist, says Bright Smile toothpaste is the most effective at fighting plaque build-up.”
Directions: Create (or make up) one example of each type of evidence that would support each claim. Your goal is to demonstrate your understanding of each type of evidence. Your answer for each doesn’t need to be more than a couple sentences. You may number your responses.
The more video games children play, the more violent they will become.
3. Appeal of Authority
Texting messes up ur grammar
6. Appeal of Authority
Studying a foreign language gives children a greater command of their native language.
9. Appeal of authorit